Cooking Terms Page

Sabayon:   A frothy custard of egg yolk, sugar, and wine that is made by whisking the ingredients over simmering water. Served warm as a dessert or sauce.

Saignant:   (French) Of meat preparation, underdone.

Salami:   (Italian) Spiced pork sausage, prepared fresh or smoked.

Salnii:   (French) Stew made by first roasting game and then cooking it in wine sauce.

Samovar:   (Russian) Metal tea urn heated from an inner tube, in which charcoal is burnt.

Sautee:   (French) method of preparation whereby food is rapidly fried in shallow, hot fat, and turned until evenly browned.

Savarin:   (French) Rich yeast cake, which is baked in a ring mould and soaked in liqueur-favoured syrup. Served cold with cream or cream sauce.

Scald:   1. Method do preparation whereby milk or cream is heated to just below boiling point. 2. Method of preparation whereby fruit or vegetables are plunged into boiling water to remove the skins.

Scallions:   Young, green member of the onion family. The young onion is most often used in salads and the green portion utilized to flavor savory dishes and vegetables.

Scallop:   Edible mollusc with white flesh and orange coral or roe. The deep, fluted shell is used for serving the scallops and other foods.

Scaloppine:   (Italian) Small escalopes of veal, weighing 1-1.5 oz. and, about 3-square inches.

Schnitzel:   (German) Veal slice; see escalope.

Scoring:   1. Cutting gashes or narrow grooves in the surface of food; Example -- in pork rind to produce crackling. 2. Making a pattern of squares or diamonds on pastry crust.

Searing:   Method of preparation whereby browning meat rapidly with fierce heat to seals in the juices and flavor of the meat.

Seasoned Flour:   Flour favoured with salt and pepper.

Seasoning:   Salt, pepper, spices or herbs, which are added to food to enhance the flavor.

Semi-sweet or bittersweet chocolate:   Often utilized in cake and cookie recipes. Both terms are often used interchangeably, though bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor (the paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa beans). Semi-sweet chocolate contains at least 35% chocolate liquor, while some fine bittersweets contain 50% or more. Either chocolate possess a deep, smooth, intense flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans used rather than added dairy products. Sugar, vanilla, and cocoa butter must be added to the liquor to enhance the chocolate flavor.

Serrano Chiles:   A hot chile pepper. Smaller, thinner and hotter than the jalapeno.

Shallots:   An onion variety that produces clusters of bulbs. Flavor is slightly less intense than that of onions.

Sieve:   A fine, mesh strainer.

Sifting:   Passing flour or sugar through a sieve to remove lumps and add air.

Simmering:   Method of preparation whereby food is cooked in liquid which is heated to just below boiling point.

Skewer:   Metal or wooden pin used to hold meat, poultry or fish in shape during cooking.

Skimming:   Removing cream from the surface of milk, fat from the tops of gravies and sauces or frothy scum from broths or jam and jellies during cooking.

Smoking:   Method of curing foods, such as bacon or fish, by exposing it to wood smoke for a considerable period of time.

Sorbet:   (French) Water ice made with fruit juice or pureed fruit.

Sorrel Leaves:   Bright green leaves with a lemony flavor that soften when cooked.

Soufflee:   (French) Baked dish consisting of a sauce or puree, which is thickened with egg yolks into which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded and cooked.

Souffle Dish:   Straight-sided, circular dish used for cooking and serving souffles.

Sousing:   Pickling food in brine or vinegar; Example -- soused herrings.

Soy Sauce:   A salty sauce composed mainly of soybeans, salt, yeast, wheat, and sugar. Utilized in marinades, sauces and Chinese or Japanese cooking.

Spaghetti:   (Italian) Solid strands of pasta of various thicknesses and colors.

Spit:   Revolving skewer or metal rod on which meat, poultry or game is roasted over a fire or under a grill. Process creates high heat and forces fat to spit out of meats.

Spring-form Mould:   Baking tin with hinged sides, held together by a metal clamp or pin, which is opened to release the cake or pie cooked inside of it.

Squab:   Young, domesticated pigeon with dark meat. Squad is usually about 4 weeks old and weighs one pound or less. Often served rare.

Starch:   Carbohydrate obtained from cereals and potatoes or other tubers.

Steaming:   Process whereby food is cooked in the steam rising from boiling water.

Steeping:   1. Soaking in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient. 2. Soaking to remove an ingredient; Example -- salt from smoked ham or salted cod.

Sterilizing:   Destroying germs by exposing food to heat as specific temperatures.

Stewing:   Process whereby food is simmered slowly in a covered pan or casserole.

Stirring:   To mix with a circular movement, using a spoon or fork or other utensil.

Straining:   To separate liquids from solids by passing them through a metal or cloth sieve.

Strudel:   (Austrian) Thin leaves of pastry dough, filled with fruit, nuts or savoury mixtures, which are rolled and baked and finally iced or frosted.

Stuffing:   Savoury mixture of bread or rice, herbs, fruit or minced meat, used to fill poultry, fish, meat and vegetables.

Suet:   Fat around beef or lamb kidneys.

Sumac:   (Middle East) Spice that comes from the grated skin of a dark berry that possesses a a sightly acidic, astringent flavor.

Superfine Sugar:   Also known as Caster sugar. Pulverized granulated sugar. Can be purchased or prepared at home by whipping granulated sugar in the blender.

Sweet Chocolate:   Highly like the composition of semi-sweet chocolate, sweet chocolate has more sugar added and less chocolate liquor.

Syllabub:   Cold dessert of sweetened thick cream, white wine, sherry or fruit juice.

Syrup:   Thick, sweet liquid made by boiling sugar with water or fruit juices.

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